I know you still want to use Google without giving away all your personal data. To accomplish this while using Firefox, use the Searchonymous extension. With this, you can stay signed into your Google account while searching and Google won’t know it’s you doing the search. It also gets rid of most of the annoying ads.
I sometimes hear someone argue that specialization has weakened society as individuals now have fewer skills with which to survive a calamity. This argument presupposes a sudden reversion to a rude state of society and that such a change would become permanent. This seems unreasonable to me as it assumes that we would not work to restore what we lost.
Of course, any person with skills suitable for employment in a more primitive society would be more comfortable until we attain our former level of development. Once this happens, this person’s skills again become irrelevant.
The question of how much time and other resources we devote to acquiring the skills needed to survive and thrive during a calamity remains unanswerable.
Losing your smart phone can be more that inconvenience if your are an active private investigator. Over at PInow, Kelly Cory’s article titled How to Keep Your Smartphone Secure offers some sound advice.
In the past I have written about the risks associated with feral dogs. Currently, the town of Kenora Ontario is experiencing some difficulties with feral dogs. Having a pack of feral dogs circling your house is not something to take lightly.
When Knives Attack
The recent Calgary mass murder illustrates how people assess risk wrongly. Statistics Canada reports (in 2008) that one-third of homicides and attempted murders involved edged weapons. That is more than any other type of weapon. StatsCan also reported that edged weapons were used against six per cent of victims of violent crime while firearms were used against two per cent of victims. Yet most people and organisations dither over plans for mass shootings.
Knives are easy to obtain, easy to conceal, they don’t run out of ammunition, and they cut in any direction. No training is required and if you can move your hand with the knife in your grasp, then you can kill with it.
This type of crime occurs quite often. Here is a recent sampling:
- four people were stabbed in a Regina shopping mall
- student was stabbed at a Brampton, Ontario, high school
- four coworkers stabbed at a Toronto office by a man who was being fired
- two people killed and four wounded in a Loblaw’s warehouse stabbing attack
Of course the knee-jerk reaction will be to ban assault knives. Of course all prohibitions fail miserably and probably make the situation worse as happened with the ‘war on drugs’ and ‘gun control’. Some foolish individuals will no doubt say that the StatsCan figures prove that ‘gun control’ works and we now need ‘knife control’, no doubt a knife registry will follow.
In the Calgary case, the accused probably took the knife from the kitchen and then started his rampage. I’m sure registering their kitchen knives after getting a licence to buy them would have stopped this attack.
Whether it’s feral dogs or knife attacks, you have to measure the relative probability of the event occurring against the consequences of the event. We are hard wired to believe that we live in a safe world–if we weren’t, then we would never have ventured out of our caves to create the world we now live in. This is called the normalcy bias.
Normalcy Bias Vs. Risk
I am paid to respond to situations where the normalcy bias got the better of someone or to plan for situations that nobody wants to contemplate. Decades of experience has taught me that nobody wants to contemplate the low probability, high consequence events. Legislation and hand wringing won’t change this–planning, preparation, and training might. Unfortunately, the interest in preparation and training wanes quickly as memory of the event that spawned this dissipates, and thereby allowing the normalcy bias to reassert itself.
A handy cheat sheet for searching DuckDuckGo can be found at Techglimpse. Click on the image to see the larger version.
Wolfram Alpha is an interesting answer engine. It answers questions by computing the answer from curated, structured data, rather than providing a list of web pages that contain the search words like normal search engines.
Investigations often hinge on local conditions such as weather. When I need to estimate the weather conditions or compare someone’s description of the weather to actual conditions, I type in a search term like “what was the weather in toronto on july 1, 1967″. Sometimes, Wolfram Alpha has no data from which to formulate an answer such as happened with this search. If you substitute the years 1950 or 2000 you get answers, but not for 1967.
Of course I verify what I get from Wolfram Alpha through official sources.
Eyewitness testimony is the weakest evidence an investigator can collect. The vessel that contains this evidence is subject to illness, death, corruption, and a myriad of defects that compromise the evidence. Being a trained investigator does not make you immune to all these weaknesses.
How we access and share information and how we communicate has changed dramatically over the last 30 years. This evolving technology is changing how we conduct investigations. It is changing how we observe criminal activity. The number sources of evidence available in some investigations have become overwhelming.
The Investigator as an Internet Eyewitness
The key to believable evidence gathered from the Internet is that it is visual, understandable, and could be reproduced if someone else did it at the same time as when it was originally collected.
When I review an investigation, I apply these criteria to determine if it was done by an expert or a bodger.
Investigators are taking on the role of eyewitness by observing evidence that might not be visible to any other available investigator as it appears only momentarily in internet venues. To be a reliable eyewitness, the investigator needs to create a record of what he or she sees at any particular point in time. This must be done in the same manner as handwritten notes. However, these records must provide a visual representation of the evidence collected. With Investigative Internet Research, the computer’s camera and mic, along with software that records screen activity, become the investigator’s notebook.
Typically, screenshots combined with written eyewitness reports, are used to record what an investigator observes in social media and other internet sites. However, screenshots and written reports do not provide a full representation of the research process or the evidence uncovered.
Twenty pages of social media content along with text detailing each screenshot is time consuming to produce and mind-numbing for a Judge or jury to endure. The Judge and jury need an eyewitness to tell them what happened and to illustrate why they should believe this evidence.
As with any eyewitness testimony, two corroborating witnesses are much better than one. The second eyewitness improves the credibility of the evidence presented in the courtroom. The consistency of the eyewitness testimony needs to be established through documentation as would be done with traditional witness statements given at different times to police before trial.
Follow the Script
Wherever possible, rehearse the visual, logical, and reproducible nature of the witness testimony to produce a clean copy of the investigators’ witness testimony. Don’t be afraid to script the testimony. Don’t be afraid to admit scripting the recorded testimony. Explain, if asked, that the recorded collection process is just a representation of what you did without any irrelevant material or wasted time. Explain that the recorded collection process is what really happened as it happened.
The hallmark of a good report is that it looks organised and complete without being over crowded with text and other material. The recorded testimony of the investigators must also be organised and complete without any extraneous content. Sometimes, accomplishing this requires scripting and rehearsal.
The investigator’s recorded process of collection must present the page as he saw it and the viewer must see and hear the investigator as he goes through the collection process. Just because you did this before and scripted the presentation of your collection process does not make the recorded content any less valid.
Above all else, be logical. The collection process must proceed in a straight line from a clearly explained starting point to the next logical point. Continue in like fashion until you reach a logical conclusion.
Explain the logic and connections in the accompanying report. Your report will probably need elements from PowerPoint, screen shots, images, graphs, etc. to accomplish this. Use visual aids to make connections and illustrate logic!
Explain how you got there. Explain what you saw. Explain the importance of what you found. Explain material that meets the elements of the offence or supports the continuation of the offence in some way.
The viewer must see and hear the second investigator doing the same thing as the first investigator. The viewer must see the second investigator collect the same material as the first one. Doing this will require some scripting and rehearsal.
Some situations happen too fast to allow scripting and rehearsal. In that case, you will have to use the raw recording of the IIR that captured the evidence. Even if you are creating a scripted and rhearsed presentation of the collected evidence, you should have a recording of the original IIR collection effort.
Images that appear on a web site offer many insights into the people who created the site. They tell you if they have the money to buy copyrighted content, or that they took the time to create their own imagery to get across their message. The imagery may also tell you that they don’t respect copyright law. The use of the same image on several sites may indicate a relationship between the sites that use the image.
Bing now offers an image search facility that allows you to paste the specific image URL into the search box at Bing.com/images. If you have a picture that you want to match, then you may upload it directly to Bing.com/Images and Bing will search for matches. To match an image, submit a URL, or upload an image, just click on image match.
When you come across an image on a site you find in the Bing Web results, go to Bing Image search and clear the search box. That will make the Image Match link appear next to the search box. When using this, the best approach is to have Bing Web open in one tab and Bing Images in another. As you click on Web results, they will open in a new tab between Bing Web and Bing Images. To isolate the images you wish to search, in Firefox, right click the image and click on view image. This will take you to the image itself and its unique URL. This makes it easier for Bing to isolate the image it is trying to match.
I have never liked dealing with witnesses. They are fickle things that frustrate and annoy me. They change their stories or offer-up bizarre versions of events. Eye witnesses are the bane of any experienced investigator. A news item and my own failure to observe accurately this morning illustrate the dangers of relying on the eye witness.
The first item is comical the second not nearly so. Early this morning a taxi driver discharged his passenger and then got stuck in the snow. He called police saying he couldn’t get out of his car because there was a bear circling his car.
The second example is something much more personal. I have been fighting a cold that migrated to my lungs. During an online interview I began to feel very disoriented and lightheaded. I had to stop the interview but I had no idea what was happening to me.
In a past life I was both a diver and a pilot. I was trained to recognise hypoxia and I had experienced it firsthand during operations. On a quiet morning, during an online interview, I was wholly unable to make out what was happening to me.
So many things can effect what an eye witness reports. The cab driver was a city guy with no experience with dogs or bears. He couldn’t distinguish between a bear and Bear the Newfoundland dog. I wasn’t in a high performance aircraft or underwater with a dodgy re-breather. My environment and mindset this morning made it impossible for me to realize that I was suffering from hypoxia brought on by a lung infection.
Witness testimony may be critical to most investigations, but please give me physical evidence that can be sent to a lab for analysis or documents that can be read, examined, and filed away until trial.