When you start to investigate a particular Internet site, I suggest you begin with these resources.
Domain Dossier Investigate domains and IP addresses. Get registrant information, DNS records, and more—all in one report.
InterNIC Public Information Regarding Internet Domain Name Registration Services
Network Solutions’ Whois
DomainSearch.com Search multiple top level domains at once to see if the domain name is in use. I use it to find the domain name in other top level domains.
Convert Host/Domain Name to IP Address and vice versa Find the IP of a host machine (convert host to IP) or domain name (convert domain name to ip address) or find the name of one of the hosts at an IP address (convert ip address).
Using Traceroute Learn how to use and interpret traceroute results.
Additions thanks to Kirby:
hostcabi.net Provides lot of information, but most importantly, it identifies other users of same Google Analytics account and all the sites using that account.
sitedossier.com Sometimes shows older servers, which is useful when website has upgraded to cloud service or CloudFlare.
The European Union “right to be forgotten” law that allows individuals to demand the removal of links from Google’s EU search sites is starting to come into play.
The EU “Right to be Forgotten” is clearly a form of censorship in the 28 member nations and 4 other European countries that encompasses over 500 million people. Google has 90% of the search engine market there.
Demanding the removal of an indexed item only renews interest in the story. As the law only applies to Google and not the pages themselves or other search engines, traffic to the articles in question increases thanks to journalists calling attention to them once they receive notification that the article was removed from the EU sites. This is known as The Streisand Effect.
European Google search results for any name display the disclaimer that, “Some results may have been removed under data protection law in Europe,” even if nobody requested the removal of anything.
Of course, people will soon tire of writing about the removed articles and people will stop demanding the removal of indexed items.
Certainly, a free speech enthusiasts will start to collate all the missing search results and make them available. This has already started with Hidden From Google. This site archives articles that Google must remove from European Union search results. I’m certain a Twitter account like @gdnvanished will also appear to provide similar content.
The easiest way to circumvent this censorship is to search using the Google.com site instead of the local EU search sites—or better yet, use other search engines like DuckDuckGo, Yandex, and blekko.
During research projects I sometimes come across astounding levels of stupidity posted for all to see. Sometimes this occurs in obscure corners of the interweb, sometimes it’s done on Twitter.
If I think an instance of stupidity might become important in the future, I manually archive the web page or Tweet by submitting it to the Wayback Machine using the Save Page Now option.
This doesn’t work with all sites, but when it works, the “Bozo Eruption” will be available on an authoritative site in the future. There won’t be any question that the eruption occurred if someone has second thoughts and removes it from the site.
Images that appear on a web site offer many insights into the people who created the site. They tell you if they have the money to buy copyrighted content, or that they took the time to create their own imagery to get across their message. The imagery may also tell you that they don’t respect copyright law. The use of the same image on several sites may indicate a relationship between the sites that use the image.
Bing now offers an image search facility that allows you to paste the specific image URL into the search box at Bing.com/images. If you have a picture that you want to match, then you may upload it directly to Bing.com/Images and Bing will search for matches. To match an image, submit a URL, or upload an image, just click on image match.
When you come across an image on a site you find in the Bing Web results, go to Bing Image search and clear the search box. That will make the Image Match link appear next to the search box. When using this, the best approach is to have Bing Web open in one tab and Bing Images in another. As you click on Web results, they will open in a new tab between Bing Web and Bing Images. To isolate the images you wish to search, in Firefox, right click the image and click on view image. This will take you to the image itself and its unique URL. This makes it easier for Bing to isolate the image it is trying to match.
So you want to use Chrome as your browser. Are you aware that it has recently been reported that a Chrome Bug Allows Sites to Listen to Your Private Conversations?
The best way to avoid this threat is as follows:
- Go to chrome://settings/content
- Scroll down to Media
- Select “Do not allow any sites to access my camera and microphone.
This will disable Google’s Conversational Search, etc. but security will be increased.
I never liked the way Chrome ‘phoned home’ to Google with user tracking, bug tracking etc. I have also found extensions that had malware-filled updates. However, it is faster than Firefox, which over the course of a research project may save hours of extra time. I resisted using Chrome due to security & privacy issues.
I now use is Comodo Dragon, which is based on the open-source Chrome browser, however, it is more private and secure if used properly. I disable the camera & mic as SOP, so I haven’t investigated how Dragon responds to this exploit. The setting change that I outlined was in reference to the actual Chrome browser and this particular exploit, there may be more that I don’t know about.
I am very careful about exposing myself to the internet. My outward-facing computers don’t have cameras or mics to entirely circumvent malicious software like this and the likes of Finspy.
The online exif viewer at www.gbimg.org has a lot of widgets on it.
My last discovery was the Exif site at http://www.findpicturelocation.com. Just upload the picture and it will show the location where it was taken. It only works with .jpg or .tif files. You must upload the image to the site, so who knows where it might end-up. This uses the Google API for the mapping. Not all pictures have the GPS coordinates in them.
Your search and browsing behaviour allows Google to personalise your search results. To escape this filtering of your results use a private browser window called incognito as it is called in Chrome. Google will then ignore tracking and search cookies to stop personalising your results. To get a private browser or incognito window use the following key combinations:
- Chrome – Ctrl+Shift+N
- FireFox – Ctrl+Shift+P
- Internet Explorer – Ctrl+Shift+P
I have found that this approach doesn’t work with Bing.
Metasearch for the Big Guys
Dogpile returns results from Google, Yahoo!, and Yandex. The Russian engine, Yandex, is the fourth largest search engine in the world and Yahoo! is really the Bing search engine database.
Dogpile is only good for short and simple search statements, however, it is a good for a quick look at what you are likely to get from the largest search engines.
Copernic has stopped selling its professional version metasearch tool and discontinued all support for both the professional and free personal versions of Copernic Agent. It only searches five of the 15 search engines it purports to search (Google, Bing, Yahoo, Dogpile, and Open Directory Project).
Copernic is Windows only.
iMetaseach is a possible replacement for Copernic. It is now in version 5.03, so it isn’t a new kid on the block. The paid version searches Google and purports to search 11 other search engines.
The program groups search results by concept; click a group that interest you and the search results will be revised. This is an effective method to refine search results and get the most relevant results. It’s very effective for ambiguous search terms.
Unfortunately, iMetasearch has a steep learning curve, but if you frequently conduct Investigative Internet Research it is worth the effort to learn how to use this advanced web search tool.
iMetasearch is Windows only.
The DuckDuckGo (DDG) search engine aggregates content to provide search results while offering significant privacy features. My favorite search shortcut in DDG is its version of the Google site: command. Place an exclamation point before the site you want to search–for example, “private investigator” !facebook. The exclamation point directs the search to a specific site. In this case, you will have to login to your Facebook account to see the results.