OSINT & Zombie Journals–Part 5

To improve your evaluation skills, develop three abilities:

  1. Maintain a skeptical mind-set.
  2. Learn which sources are most trustworthy.
  3. Learn to identify reporting errors and inconsistencies. If something does not look right, investigate its veracity.

In addition, the skeptical investigator must develop a structured means of evaluating the relevance and reliability of the collected data along with the ability to communicate this. In my opinion, this is the most demanding part of any investigation.

The following list of 13 evaluation criteria has developed over decades of practice by researchers and investigators worldwide. This list of evaluation criteria appears in one form or another throughout the literature on research and intelligence analysis. I use a Microsoft Excel spread sheet based upon them to record the evaluation of sources for most investigations. Doing this is time-consuming, but it is often necessary to maintain the integrity of the reported data and the conclusions that are drawn from it.

The Internet is renowned for harbouring unreliable information. The following evaluation matrix will work for you if you rigorously apply it.

Evaluation Matrix

  1. Recency.Do the data appear to be current on the subject or the most appropriate for the historical time period? Are sources dated, and maintained?
  2. Relevancy. Is there a direct correlation to the subject? What is the tone of the information display? Is it popular, scholarly, or technical?
  3. Authority. What is the reputation of the data, and the data-provider? Has this source of data been cited elsewhere? What is the reliability of the source? How can you document or qualify the source of the information?
  4. Completeness. Are alternative data or views cited? Are references provided? Given what you know about the source, is there any evidence that the data is NOT ‘slanted’?
  5. Accuracy. Does the source furnish background information about data sources and/or in-­depth data? Are the complex issues of data integrity and validity oversimplified? Are the terms adequately defined? Are there references or sources of quotes?
  6. Clarity. Is the presentation of information really credible? Can bias of the information providers really be ruled out? Are there any logical fallacies in presentation of the data or assertions, or in other statements or publications on the page or by the source? Are key assumptions described, or are they hidden in the hope that the reader will be gullible?
  7. Verifiability. Can the information be verified? Can you find corroboration? If not, why not?
  8. Statistical validity. Can the key points or critical data be supported by standard statistical testing? With subjective information, one verifies by corroboration as it can be found. With numerical information, many questions arise. What statistical inference is needed in order to accept any implied inferences of the data displayed? Are there clear explanations for readers or viewers to qualify the implications of numerical “averages” or “percentages?”
  9. Internal consistency. Do the data or commentary contain internal contradictions? Know what you can about the source, and scan for logical fallacies throughout the presentation.
  10. External consistency. Do the data reflect any contradictions among the source documents? In the assertion of information or views, is there an acknowledgment or recognition of alternative views or sources? If not, and source documents are involved, one might suspect that the author had an “agenda”.
  11. Context. Can fact be distinguished from opinion? Are sources taken, or used out of context?
  12. Comparative quality. Are some data clearly inferior to other data? Which are the “best” data when you consider the above eleven tests ( i.e., most recent, most relevant, the most authoritative, the most complete, the most accurate and so forth). You should always be evaluating the information as you browse the Net. Check the little things that journalists watch for. A misspelled name, for example, could be a warning sign, even in an academic paper, that the author was careless in other areas as well. Do any statements seem exaggerated? If so, why has the author exaggerated? Is it a spur­-of-­the­moment statement by e­mail, or is that exaggeration more deliberate? Are you reading instant analysis, quick off the mark, or the results of a carefully crafted study, or a meta­analysis, which is a study of all previous studies on a subject? What do you think has been left out of  the report? What an author omits may be just as important to a researcher as what an author includes. What’s left out could reveal much about the bias of the information you are reading. Take notes on such matters as you find sources, and possibly include footnotes in your paper, if that’s what you’re doing; it’ll provide evidence that you have critical thinking abilities! Don’t ignore bias as a valuable source of information, as well: Even an untrustworthy source is valuable for what it reveals about the personality of an author, especially if he or she is an actor in the events.
  13. Problems.There’s another problem, growing in the 1990s, called by some the Crossfire Syndrome, after Crossfire, the CNN public affairs show and its tabloid television imitators. The Crossfire Syndrome drowns out the moderate voices in favor of polarization and polemics. Confrontation between polar opposites may make for good television, but it often paints a distorted view of reality. On the Net, and throughout North American media culture, the Crossfire Syndrome is acute. In flame wars, the shouters on both sides are left to use up bandwidth while the moderate voices back off. Political correctness of any sort, right or left, religious or secular, tends to distort material while creating interest, at the cost of ‘truth’. All of us are left with the task, with nearly any information we’re exposed to, of seeking out the facts behind the bias. It’s been said many times that there is no such thing as objectivity. The honest researcher tries to be fair. The best researcher is both prosecutor and defense attorney, searching out the facts on all sides (there are often more than two).

The advent of the 24-hour all-news network, along with a procession of imitators and the Web. The CNN Effect lives off of one continually asked question, ‘how bad can it get?’ as a way to maintain viewer interest. This severely distorts the information presented.

A Test

If you want to test what you have learned here is an example.

You are researching how IT operations impact carbon dioxide emissions. In the data you uncover, you find the following journal article: Towards Green CommunıcatıonsWhat would your evaluation of this article be?

OSINT & Zombie Journals–Part 4

Always keep in mind that, as the old pessimist philosopher Arnold Schopenhauer stated, “The truth will set you free–but first it will make you miserable.”

The RICE Method of Evaluation

Use the RICE method can help you decide on how to respond to information or intelligence:

  • R for reliability. The basic truthfulness or accuracy of the information you are evaluating.
  • I for the importance of the data based upon its relevance
  • C for the cost of the data (and your possible reactions or actions relating to the information)
  • E for the effectiveness of your actions if based upon this information. Would actions based upon this information solve the problems you face?

This evaluation format is useful for summarizing collected data and for analyzing how you might apply the data in a broad range of situations. However, it does not delve into specific metrics used to evaluate a particular piece of information. The next article will provide 13 evaluation metrics to help you do that.

The term metrics means in this context:  a system of related measures that facilitates the quantification of some particular characteristic.

Reliability

Reliability is the basic truthfulness or accuracy of the information. When evaluating data from journals you may not have the technical knowledge to evaluate the content itself. However, you do have the ability to compare the date of publication to the ownership of the journal. You also have the ability to compile a list of the author’s previous journal articles, their date of publication, the names of the journals and the publisher or owner of the journal. You can also identify conferences that the author attended or at which he was a speaker. You can then determine who ran or supported these conferences.

Predatory publishers often create or sponsor conferences to showcase their authors who may pay to be published. The conference may be part of a paid for publication package. Sometimes, they advertise a conference and take in attendance fees, and then the conference never occurs.

It is sometimes difficult to link a conference to a predatory publisher. You have to look at the page source code and the conference domain registrations and the list of speakers to tie the conference to a predatory publisher.

Cost

Cost is an important factor to consider from two perspectives. First, the obvious cost/benefit relationship or more precisely, the question, is this worth the cost? Second, if the data seem too good to be offered free, then you have to ask, why is this free?

As you now know, open access journals don’t make their money from subscriptions. You must uncover and then evaluate the relationship between how the journal makes its money and the authors who produce the content. Of course, this evaluation metric is not unique to academic and open access journals.

Part 5 will discuss a more detailed evaluation matrix.

OSINT & Zombie Journals—Part 3

Understanding the Need for Evaluation Methods & Citations

The basis of your evaluation method is understanding that you cannot know what you don’t know. However, as you come to terms with this, you can guard against the perils of the Dunning-Kruger Effect.

Dunning-Kruger Effect

There is a saying that “you cannot know what you do not know”. This might seem redundant, but it is also true as it might be impossible to identify gaps in our own knowledge. In other words, you cannot teach yourself what you do not know. Without instruction and training, you are very likely to think that you do, in fact, know “everything” you need to know, when you actually do not have the ability to recognize your mistakes – you are unconsciously incompetent. David Dunning and Justin Kruger first tested this phenomenon in a series of experiments in 1999[1].

Typically, the unskilled rate their ability as above average, much higher than it actually is, while the highly skilled underrate their abilities. Confidence is no substitute for skill and knowledge which must be used with confidence to ensure a positive outcome.

The Dunning-Kruger Effect may inhibit proper evaluation of the collected data without an established evaluation method. This article, and those that follow, should help you adopt an effective evaluation process.

Developing the necessary skills and knowledge is not ‘rocket science’, it is ‘time in grade’. You must simply do it, study how to do it better, and network with people who do it. This process takes years of effort but do not give up. I have been doing this type of research for 40 years and I am still learning. Now let’s set about reducing the Dunning-Kruger Effect.

Before beginning the evaluation of the collected data itself, the investigator must prepare accurate citations as the starting point for evaluation. The citation quantifies significant attributes of the data and its source.

Citations

A citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source though not always the original source.

Citations uphold intellectual honesty and avoid plagiarism. They provide attribution to the work and ideas of other people while allowing the reader to weigh the relevance and validity of the source material that the investigator employed.

Regardless of the citation style used, it must include the author(s), date of publication, title, and page numbers. Citations should also include any unique identifiers relevant to the type of material referenced.

The citation style you adopt will depend upon your clientele and the material being reported. If the report will include many citations, you should discuss the issue of citation style with your client before producing the report and your client should be familiar with that style, if at all possible.

Never use footnotes or endnotes for anecdotal information. This avoids having something masquerading as a citation of a source that only provides supplementary information. Supplementary information belongs in the body of the report where it is identified as such.

While doing OSINT, you might find a document from an organization that changes its name before you finish your report. In that case, the document was retrieved before the name change. How do you cite reference? Do you cite it with the old organization name or the new name?

Normal practice is to use the name as it was when you found the document, however, this can cause problems when someone does fact-checking to independently verify the citation. Someone must then find and document the history of the organization name.

The solution is to cite the date the document was retrieved and in square brackets include the new name, for example, [currently, XTS Organization] or better still, [as of 11 Jan 13 the name changed to XTS Organization]. The latter addition to the citation creates a dated history of the organization’s name. The dated history of a journal and its publisher is of critical importance when dealing with journals that die and come back as zombies. It is wise to check Jeffery Bealls’s list of predatory publishers while preparing citations. It is also wise to state when this list was checked in a footnote or in the actual citation as I now do.

Of course, all Web citations must include the date on which the URL was visited for the purpose it is being cited.

Bibliographic Databases

The large bibliographic abstract and citation databases are secondary sources that merely collect journal article abstracts and journal titles without much, or any, vetting of the article or journal.

Elsevier’s Scopus  is one such service, another is the Thompson Reuters Master Journal List. Do not consider either an authoritative source of quality journals or abstracts. Both contain numerous low-quality journals produced by predatory publishers.

Lars Bjørnshauge founded an online index open-access journals in 2003 with 300. Over the next decade, the open-access publishing market exploded. By 2014, the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) now operated by the non-profit company, IS4OA, had almost 10,000 journals. Today its main problem is not finding new publications to include, but keeping the predatory publishers out.

In 2014, following criticism of its quality-control process, DOAJ began asking all of the journals to reapply based on a stricter inclusion criterion in hopes of weeding-out predatory publishers. However, the question remains, how does DOAJ determine if the publisher is lying?

Attempts to create a ‘whitelist’ of journals seems doomed to failure, especially when attempted by a non-profit using volunteers. Most researchers will judge a journal’s quality by its inclusion in major citation databases, such as Elsevier’s Scopus index, rather than the DOAJ’s list. As you can see, Scopus and the Thompson Reuters Master Journal List are also vulnerable to manipulation by unscrupulous publishers.

Predatory publishers have realised that these lists offer a very low barrier to entry, especially in certain categories. In addition, as such databases are usually subscription services, some publishers advertise certain authors using fake citations supposedly from bibliographic databases knowing that certain commercially valuable demographics never verify these citations.

[1] Kruger, Justin; Dunning, David (1999). “Unskilled and Unaware of It: How Difficulties in Recognizing One’s Own Incompetence Lead to Inflated Self-Assessments”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 77(6), Dec 1999, 1121-1134.  http://psycnet.apa.org/?&fa=main.doiLanding&doi=10.1037/0022-3514.77.6.1121 (3 Oct 2016).

OSINT & Zombie Journals—Part 2

The Nature of Sources

Primary & Secondary Sources

An archive is a primary source because the contents are documents usually authored by a person with direct knowledge of the topic; this includes public records completed by the subject.

A library is a secondary source because its documents are created from the primary sources, as are citations, abstracts,  bibliographic databases, etc..

Authoritative Sources

Evaluating the quality of a source is to ask questions like:

  • What is the reputation of the data, and the data-provider (including the publisher)?
  • Has this source of data been cited elsewhere?
  • What is the reliability of the source?
  • How can the source of the information be documented or qualified?
  • Is this a primary source or secondary source?
  • Is this a legally required or legally binding source?

Answers to the above questions should help you find the authoritative source. Zombies are never authoritative sources.

In the next article I will discuss evaluation methods, citations, and bibliographic databases.

OSINT & Zombie Journals—Part 1

Many scholarly journals are being bought-up by predatory publishers that turn once prestigious journals into publications full of junk science. Usually these publishers turn their acquisitions into free ‘open access’ publications on the Internet that are full of typos, inaccuracies, and even outright fabrications.

One such online publisher, the OMICS Group, is being sued by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission for deceptive practices that include spam emails to solicit articles that are not peer reviewed. This same outfit recently acquired two Canadian medical journal publishers.

From the researcher’s perspective, the most deceptive practice of these free open access journals is the fact that authors pay to have their articles published. The second deceptive practice, according to the FTC, is that such publishers falsely state that their journals are widely cited and included in academic databases. To the contrary, the FTC states that PubMed does not include any of the OMICS titles. The FTC also alleges that the work of authors is sometimes held hostage for payment of undisclosed fees.

When Jeffery Beall, an academic librarian at the University of Colorado, started compiling his list of predatory publishers, he found only 18—that was in 2010. Today, his list has over 1000 publishers.

When a predatory publisher acquires a journal, it ceases to be a scholarly journal and only lives on as something exploited for profit. Such an acquisition ends proper peer review. The journal becomes a zombie.

For the researcher conducting a literature review, the additional time and effort required to vet every article and citation to eliminate zombie journals has increased to nearly unbearable levels. Of course, this is part of the zombie strategy to flood the scholarly journal space with purulent, infectious zombies to kill-off real journals.

Zombie publications are a rising issue for serious researchers. The quality of a literature review affects the quality of the decisions based upon this collected data.

This series of articles is about recognising and avoiding open-source junk. These five articles should help you develop the evaluation skills and processes necessary to avoid falling victim to zombie journals and other forms of diseased data that infects the open-source domain.

The Internet Profile & Identity

In the industrialized countries, a person’s Internet profile is given far too much credence. If you become involved in Investigative Internet Research, then you must combine the Internet profile you develop with authoritative public records and content from a variety of database aggregators.

This is of critical importance as more than one person often uses the same screen name or a screen name may be used maliciously. The more data you collect, the more likely that you will attribute some data to the wrong person.

Mapping a person’s identity is nothing more than comparing gender, race, location, religion, friends, family, car, pictures, etc. to what you know about the subject and what you find in a variety of sources. This ensures that all the data is consistent and relates to only one person. It will also identify inconsistencies in the collected data, which you may choose to investigate. The identifiers are the subject’s name, along with age, gender, race, employer, location, religion, friends, family, car, pictures, etc..

The Old YouTube Scrape Trick

The Old YouTube Scrape Trick

Don’t be fooled by the old YouTube scrape trick. A scrape is an old video downloaded from YouTube which is then presented as a new and original eyewitness account of a different event.

Defeating The Old YouTube Scrape Trick

Amnesty International provides a handy tool called YouTube DataViewer.  Enter the video’s URL and it will extract the clip’s upload time and all associated thumbnail images. This data isn’t readily accessible via YouTube, however, this two-pronged approach allows you to identify the earliest upload, which is probably the original version.  Conducting a reverse search on the thumbnails often uncovers web pages containing the original version of the video along with other uses of it.

Critical Thinking & Reality TV

Critical thinking is the investigator’s greatest tool. You might have developed a good way of evaluating sources such as my 13-point check list for evaluating information, but you must apply it with intellectual rigor.

The authority of the source and the accuracy of the information are key issues to examine.

  • What is the reputation of the data, and the data-provider? Has this source of data been cited elsewhere?
  • What is the reliability of the source?
  • How can you document or qualify the source of the information?
  • Are the complex issues of data integrity and validity oversimplified?

With regard to authority and accuracy, I suggest you read the interview with Cody Lundin who is a professional survival instructor with over 25 years of experience. Read this to learn more about Survival TV from his perspective as an expert. He calls this stuff, Survival Entertainment with good reason and says, “…anyone who would trust their life to what they see on reality television shouldn’t breed.”

Critical Thinking

Growing up, my mother always told me not to believe everything I read. This was good advice, but it doesn’t go far enough.

Critical thinking is an ancient concept but the actual term began to appear in the mid-20th century. In the information age, developing this skill is essential. It is an intellectually disciplined process of actively analyzing and evaluating information. It transcends all subjects, sources, or problems. Critical thinking protects us from biased, distorted, partial, uninformed, or prejudiced content and ideas. It insulates us from improper assumptions and implications. It prevents undesirable consequences.

Critical thinking is not the application of logic for selfish purposes. Selfishness often appears under the guise of critical thought to skilfully manipulate ideas to promote a vested interest. Fortunately, this usually becomes apparent upon close examination because selfishness typically accompanies lies and an intellectually flawed argument. Examining the issue fair-mindedly, and with true intellectual integrity, the selfish analysis falls apart. Of course, the selfish minded individuals will call the product of true critical thinking idealism, using that term in a pejorative sense, thus further identifying their selfish motives.

Microsoft’s Ban on Guns & the Investigator

Since 2009 Microsoft’s Code of Conduct has been applied to more and more of their online services. Under this Code of Conduct, users are prohibited from using it in  “any way that promotes or facilitates the sale of ammunition and firearms” (See bullet point #13). You have to trust that Microsoft’s definition of “promotes or facilitates the sale of ammunition and firearms” is the same as yours and that one of their robots doesn’t delete all your data. Not recognising this risk could mean the loss of all your investigation reports and data. A lot of my investigations have included large volumes of data on firearms and ammunition. Imagine the damage to your reputation, if at a crucial juncture in the investigation, some Microsoft employee or robot decides my data and reports are “promoting guns” and deletes everything.

Most of Microsoft’s online services are covered by their “Code of Conduct”. This includes Windows Live, Office 365, Microsoft Sharepoint, Bing.com, Outlook.com, Windows OneDrive, Exchange Online, MSN and more.

Searching for firearms and ammunition data on Bing may already produce censored results as a result of the Code of Conduct.

Only Skype, Microsoft Azure and XBox Live are now exempt. I expect Skype will be the next to come under the Code of Conduct.

Windows OneDrive, formally Microsoft SkyDrive, is part of Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 8 for Phones and Windows 8 for Tablets. If you handle information about firearms you should avoid these products. You could find your account terminated and all your emails, contacts, calendar, and everything else deleted.

Windows Live powers a number of Microsoft services including Microsoft’s cloud email and cloud Office suite. Windows Live, Outlook.com and Exchange Online power many large institutions. If you work in such an institution be very careful, especially if you have signed documents agreeing to abide by Microsofts Terms of Use.

If you use Microsoft Office and the Office 365 service to share files about guns, then you will eventually find everything has gone down the memory hole.

Microsoft’s Code of Conduct can affect everything an investigator does. Searching, email, voice calls, storing data, and preparing reports are all potentially at risk if you use these services in relation to firearms and ammunition related topics. Now ask yourself how Microsoft knows the content of your data and think about the confidentiality and security of your data.

You must have a due diligence process in place before starting to even look for online and cloud services. You have to read and understand the implications of all the stuff hidden in the fine print.

Business Interrupted

Managers sometimes tie themselves into knots worrying about the risk or threat rather than analysing the impact of interrupted business processes. My advice is to stop fretting about the cause and concentrate on alleviating the impact of the interrupted business processes.

To do this, defeat the problem in detail as follows:

  • Decide which processes are critical and which are not.
  • Determine how long any particular process can be interrupted before it’s loss become detrimental to operations, profitability, and customer satisfaction.
  • Design a plan of action to determine if the disruption will continue beyond the tolerable time limit.
  • Have a plan to replace each missing process.
  • Plan for the concurrent loss of several critical processes.

The key to a successful business continuity plan is concentrating on the critical day-to-day operations.

How does this relate to investigtion and research? The answer is quite simple:

  • Have you ever done a security survey?
  • Have you ever done a competitor SWOT analysis?
  • Have you ever done due diligence on a critial supplier?

Political Contributions In Canada

Federal Political parties in Canada are only required to report the identities of contributors donating over $200 to one riding association or the central organization. For donations of $200 or less, receipts must be kept by the individual riding associations, but Elections Canada doesn’t record of them. Completely anonymous contributions of $20 or less are permitted.

Elections Canada confirmed in 2007 that individuals could contribute as much as $60,500 over the $1,100 limit – simply by donating $200 to each of a party’s 308 riding associations and Elections Canada would never know about it. Contributions of $200 or less are reported in aggregate, without a break-down by contributor to allow cross-checking across the riding associations.

However, we can search the Contributions & Expenses Database and other databases maintained by Elections Canada.

 

Charities & Background Investigations

I see a lot of reports produced by Private Investigators from all across North America and rarely do I ever see a search for a subject’s involvement with a charity included in background investigation reports.

In Canada, this is quite easy to do. The Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) has a web site where one can get the filings of a charity if you know its name. All Canadian registered charities are required to fill out an information return in leu of paying income tax. Like so much data produced by government, it is poorly presented and is difficult to navigate.

A much better search facility for the CRA data is available that allows searches by Director or Trustee name. This seems to work very well. Of course, all such search facilities need to be doubled checked against the “official” version before you put your name on the report.

This data will reveal associations, affiliations, the names of family members, and much more.

 

Remote File Handling

High Risk Files

When doing IIR, I often come across files that I don’t want to handle for security reasons. These can be Word documents, PDF documents, PostScript, or even Gzipped PostScript files. These file may include a load of malicious code. I sometimes don’t want any record of viewing the file on my computer. To accomplish this I must load these files remotely and safely so they don’t touch your system (the web cache should be disabled to accomplish a true remote viewing of the file as should the swap and home partitions, if the whole system isn’t encrypted).

Unless you verify each file through checksum verification (like MD5 or GPG) there’s a chance they could’ve been trojaned or the file may contain phoning home instructions or some other type of malicious feature within the file. If I don’t want to be recorded as a recipient of the file via something like ReadNotify then the file must be verified clear of such code or it must be viewed remotely.

The Remote File Viewer

I use the site at http://view.samurajdata.se/. I have only used it with PDF and Word documents. PDF and Word files are transformed into single paged graphics which you may navigate through. Most of the time it works, occasionally a PDF does not load. It doesn’t require Flash and works without cookies or javascript enabled.

I don’t know anything about the site’s privacy policy and how that might that might affect anonymity.

 

 

The Bank Act & the PI

The Bank Act

The Bank Act (1991, c. 46) is an Act of the Government of Canada respecting banks and banking.  The Canadian banking industry includes 20 domestic banks, 24 foreign bank subsidiaries and 22 foreign bank branches operating in Canada.

Canadian Banks & Lending

Canadian Banks have the right to lend money to wholesalers, retailers, shippers and dealers in “products of agriculture, products of aquaculture, products of the forest, products of the quarry and mine, products of the sea, lakes, and rivers, of goods, wares and merchandise, manufactured or otherwise” on the security of such goods or products, and to lend money to manufacturers on their goods and inventories.

The Private Investigator (PI)

When doing a background investigation of a person, the PI will be looking for previously unknown assets, banking and financial arrangements, or corporate affiliations.  When investigating a company, the PI will be looking for previously unknown assets, banking, and financial arrangements.  In both cases, the equity held by the subject in the assets will be of interest.  Searching the Bank Act Security Registry may reveal all of the above.

Bank Act Security Registry

Under S. 427 of the Bank Act, the borrower must sign a document that provides the bank with the first preferential lien on the goods or equipment.  The Bank then registers a ‘Notice of Intention‘ to take the goods as security, to perfect its security interest.

The Bank of Canada offers a Security Registry service which may be searched for registrations.  The search will reveal whether the Bank of Canada has taken security on property that may interest you.  If the Bank does have a claim on the property, then it means that it has loaned the customer money and that it has the right to take possession of and sell the property if the loan is not paid.  This is important for you to know for two reasons.  First, it shows that the person or business is indebted to a Canadian chartered bank and may have equity in the property listed in the security agreement.  Second, it may uncover previously unknown assets, banking and financial arrangements, or corporate affiliations. You will need to provide the name of the person or business being searched.

Years ago, we only did this when we suspected the subject person or company might have an interest in an agricultural business.  Today however, we find more non-agricultural businesses in the Bank of Canada registry. We have online access to the Bank of Canada registry to search for Bank Act Security items. The search results often indicate that a business assigned its inventory to a bank as security under the Bank Act.

A manual search for Notices of Intention filed under Section 427 of the Bank Act are conducted at the agency of the Bank of Canada in the province or territory where the debtor’s place of business is located. For Bank Act searches,  “agency” means, in a province, the office of the Bank of Canada or its authorized representative but does not include its Ottawa office, and in Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut means the office of the clerk of the court of each of those territories respectively [see S. 427(5)].