Many scholarly journals are being bought-up by predatory publishers that turn once prestigious journals into publications full of junk science. Usually these publishers turn their acquisitions into free ‘open access’ publications on the Internet that are full of typos, inaccuracies, and even outright fabrications.
One such online publisher, the OMICS Group, is being sued by the U.S. Federal Trade Commission for deceptive practices that include spam emails to solicit articles that are not peer reviewed. This same outfit recently acquired two Canadian medical journal publishers.
From the researcher’s perspective, the most deceptive practice of these free open access journals is the fact that authors pay to have their articles published. The second deceptive practice, according to the FTC, is that such publishers falsely state that their journals are widely cited and included in academic databases. To the contrary, the FTC states that PubMed does not include any of the OMICS titles. The FTC also alleges that the work of authors is sometimes held hostage for payment of undisclosed fees.
When Jeffery Beall, an academic librarian at the University of Colorado, started compiling his list of predatory publishers, he found only 18—that was in 2010. Today, his list has over 1000 publishers.
When a predatory publisher acquires a journal, it ceases to be a scholarly journal and only lives on as something exploited for profit. Such an acquisition ends proper peer review. The journal becomes a zombie.
For the researcher conducting a literature review, the additional time and effort required to vet every article and citation to eliminate zombie journals has increased to nearly unbearable levels. Of course, this is part of the zombie strategy to flood the scholarly journal space with purulent, infectious zombies to kill-off real journals.
Zombie publications are a rising issue for serious researchers. The quality of a literature review affects the quality of the decisions based upon this collected data.
This series of articles is about recognising and avoiding open-source junk. These five articles should help you develop the evaluation skills and processes necessary to avoid falling victim to zombie journals and other forms of diseased data that infects the open-source domain.